The role of salt taste receptors and its genomics in salt taste sensitivity and preference: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Keywords:Hypertension, Salt taste receptor gene, Salt taste sensitivity threshold, Salt preference, Single nucleotide polymorphism
Salt intake plays an important role in the development of hypertension. Regulation of salt intake is partially due to the genetic variation in salt taste receptor genes related to homeostatic sodium regulation and hedonic responses to salt taste. The main objective of our study is to evaluate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in salt taste receptor genes (ENaC & TRPV1) in salt taste sensitivity threshold and salt taste preference. A systematic search was performed covering PubMed database for English studies with humans using Mesh terms. The preparation of this paper was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting checklist. This systematic review was carried out following PRISMA guidelines and registered in PROSPERO. Three studies involving 427 participants were finally included in our study. The results revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms in transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1 gene) is significantly associated with salt taste sensitivity threshold and salt taste preference (p<0.05). SNPs in Epithelial sodium channel (ENaC gene) modified supra-threshold salt taste sensitivity. However, there is no significant association between SNPs in ENaC and salt taste sensitivity threshold. In conclusion based on the available studies on genomics of salt taste sensitivity and preference, further research on the role of SNPs in salt preference and intake may help in better understanding on the risk of hypertension.
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